Versão em Português


This is the digital version of the PhD thesis developed by Manuel Moreira Baptista and supervised by Prof. Dr. Pedro Faria dos Santos Filho at the Institute of Chemistry of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP).

This hypertext was created to allow the reader to follow the links, necessary for a complete understanding of the text written on paper that is available in the library of the IQ-UNICAMP.

There are two types of links in this hypertext, as a figure and as an underlined word. The link as a figure, like the one shown below, which was taken from the text of the thesis, is represented by an overlayed icon.

Link 1.5 – Example of animation created with Blender® software.

The other way to indicate a link is by an underlined word. The following sentence, which was taken from the text of the thesis, exemplifies this type of link.

The way the ionic bond is traditionally taught, based on transfer of electrons between isolated and neutral atoms to form the ionic pair, may have been created from the famous Lewis article from 1916, The Atom and the Molecule (Lewis, 1916).

We ask you to use the navigation bar at the top of this web-page, or at the bottom, to follow to the chapters of the thesis. We wish you a good navigation and hope that this work contributes to stimulate your capacity for abstraction and to facilitate your three-dimensional visualization.

Manuel Moreira Baptista (

Pedro Faria dos Santos Filho (

Institute of Chemistry / Zip code: 6154
State University of Campinas - UNICAMP
13083 - 970, Campinas, SP, Brazil
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